|Aquaculture and fishing
||At the level of the South-East Region the largest areas for aquaculture (65% of the national area) are concentrated. The fishing sector includes marine fishing activities on the Black Sea, and in inland waters (on the Danube and in the Delta area), aquaculture is included.
In terms of infrastructure, although it has been funded through the various dedicated operational programs, the infrastructure of fishing ports with specialized berths and storage facilities as well as the locations for organizing the first sale of fish are completely missing. The fishing fleet is also in an advanced stage of wear and tear.
The amount of fish consumed at national level has increased in the recent years, but studies show that only 12% of national consumption is covered by domestic production. It is, therefore, an extraordinary development potential for this field. The total quantity of fish sold in Romania is 120,000 tons, annually. Out of these, 100,000 come from imports and only 20,000 are local production. From domestic production, 12,800 tons are obtained from aquaculture, 2,000 tons from the Black Sea and about 4,000 tons from inland waters.
In March 2019, the National Fisheries Network was operationalized, this being the structure that could boost the research-development and innovation activity in the field.
At national level, 4,574 professional fishermen and 2,968 fish farmers are active in the fishing field. Out of the total number of fishermen, 1,720 work in the Danube Delta, 2,215 on the Danube River, 168 on the accumulation lakes and 471 on the Black Sea. The lack of vocational, high school and post-high school institutions is causing a shortage of specialists in the region.
||The South-East region includes almost all forms of relief: Danube Meadow, Bărăgan Plain, Dobrogea Plateau with Măcin Mountains, and the northwestern part of the region includes part of the Carpathians and Curburii Subcarpathians. The Danube crosses the region, forms the Delta, and the Black Sea covers the entire eastern part. Recently, the seaside tourism has been completed by spa and treatment tourism. The niche tourism (food, sports, adventure, history, nature, etc.) and wine tourism are also increasing. The number of tourist reception structures increased by 22.4% in the 2014 – 2020 period, Constanța County contributing with the highest number of new structures, followed by Tulcea County. If in 2014, at the level of the region, a total of 1,091,363 Romanian tourists arrived at the level of 2019 there were 1,782,430 arrivals of Romanian tourists, representing an increase of 63.32%.
At the level of the South-East Development Region, the index of net use of accommodation places on total tourist reception structures was in 2019 of 42.6, above the average registered in Romania of 34.2. The highest index was registered in Constanța county (49.3), followed by Brăila county (37.8), Tulcea county (31.9), Galați county (28.5), Vrancea (16.7) and Buzău (16.1).
The intensity of innovation in tourism in the South-East Region is low, with a low number of projects in this regard.
The tourism industry in the region is currently facing a shortage of well-skilled labor. There are schools with industry-specific programs, but also vocational training projects for employees.
|Information and communication technology
||At the level of the South-East Development Region, in 2019, there were 1,514 enterprises in the field of Information and Communications, representing only 2.4% of the total enterprises registered in the region. The employed civilian population in the field of information and communications was 9,800 people, of which 4,500 women. The 9 clusters operating in the region also have the ICT component.
The field is constantly evolving, the number of those who use the Internet is growing year by year. Household internet connections have also increased, with interaction with public authorities remaining low compared to the EU average. It is important to note that the South-East Region is making significant progress, being consistently among the top 3 at national level in terms of progress in this area.
There are important actors in the region that can contribute significantly to the development of the field. Supporting the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) in the region can also be achieved by developing digital innovation centers (Digital Innovation Hub - IHL). Currently, there are 3 such centers in the region.
The demand for labor can be covered by attracting graduates of university centers in the region.
|Agri-food and biotechnology
||In 2018, in the South-East Region there were 3,729 local units active in agriculture, forestry and fishing, most of them operating in Constanța County (980). The region also ranks second at national level in terms of the share of crop production and first in terms of the area under fruitful vineyards. In 2019, the region had the highest total grape production in the country, representing 42% of the total production.
The South-East region has an increased potential for rice cultivation, given the fact that in 1990 there were 15,477 ha of rice in the region, so that in 2019 they numbered only 7,427 ha. Through the South-East Region, at the level of which the Danube is also present, Romania is considered the country with the greatest development potential in the field of rice.
Agri-food biotechnologies contribute to the conservation of natural resources, to reduce CO2 emissions, to improve soil quality and high productivity; agri-food biotechnologies can provide products of increased quality and safety under more efficient use of resources and environmental protection; the economic contribution of biotechnology to agriculture at EU level is 36%; the use of biotechnology is estimated at 2030 to contribute to about 50% of agricultural production; environmental biotechnologies are effective in sustainable development based on reducing pollution; biodiversity must be conserved through biotechnologies; there is great potential for clustering in the field of environmental protection; the superior recovery of biodegradable waste and by-products by biotechnological processes can lead to increasing the level of well-being in the region, by creating new jobs and improved living conditions.
Most agricultural companies are registered in the South-East Region. The demand for organic products is growing internationally, and at the regional level it is well developed.
In the South-East Region, the number of patent applications for vegetable and fruit varieties was the highest in Buzău County, followed by Constanța County. The irrigation system is essential for agriculture in the region, so the optimal use of conventional and unconventional water resources and mitigating the effects of climate change must become the practice of all stakeholders.
The research-innovation activities at the level of the region are carried out through the existing local companies, research stations and universities.
At the level of the region, in 2019, 13.7% of the employed people worked in the fields of agriculture, forestry and fishing. However, the average monthly salary was only 2,133 lei.
Nevertheless, studies show a chronic need for qualified staff and highly trained specialists in the field.
|Engineering and shipping
||The counties whose geographical positioning is relevant for this field are Constanța, Galați and Tulcea, where shipyards are also present. These shipyards generally specialize in shipbuilding and repair. The ports in the region are also very important for the ease of shipping, as they are located on Pan-European Corridor VII.
Transport activities cover both public sea or river transport, passenger and freight transport, transport for personal use by legal or natural persons, and related transport activities.
Out of the 2,635 km of inland waterways available in Romania, 1,048 km are in the South-East Region, representing 40% of the total. In addition, out of the 182 km of navigable canals, 70% (128 km) are in the South-East Region.
In 2015, the first 8 shipyards of the country registered revenues of 4,405,408,750 lei. Significant increases in revenues compared to the previous year demonstrate an upward trend. In the same year, the number of patents and certificates was 33,000, and the domain brought together 21,000 navigators active in the navigation safety system, out of which 14,600 active navigators and 12,000 were auxiliary personnel.
The most important naval research and design center in Romania is located in Galați. The innovation in the field is also supported by the Romanian Shipbuilders Association - ANCONAV and by the educational and research institutions in the field.
The profile universities in Galați and Constanța are the main sources of highly qualified labor force for this field of activity.
||The textile market is changing, sometimes it also means closing the production capacities. One of the practices encountered in this industry is the lohn activity, representing a type of collaboration between economic actors (usually a foreign contractor who places an order and a local executor) aimed at optimizing the production costs for the contractor.
In the South-East Region, in 2018, the number of active local units in the textile manufacturing sector (CAEN Code 13) was of 133 companies, thus registering an increase of 37.11%, compared to 2014.
In what concerns the exports, in the 2017-2018 period there was a positive trend with an increase of 3%, from 792 million euros in 2017 to about 816 million euros in 2018.
Although innovation in this area is low in the region, it can take place if there is a strategic approach that shifts from high-volume, low-value-added production to innovation-based production. Also, an important element for the development is the creation of clusters in the field.
In 2018, the average number of employees in the textile manufacturing industry was 2,203 people, mostly women, down 2.1% compared to 2014. An important role in the region is played by the vocational schools that offer qualification in the field.